I have now reached the point where, with your continuing indulgence, I may summarize what i believe to be the specific novelties of dictatorial totalitarianism.
First, it is really totalitarian. It monopolizes all powers and directs all activities of individuals and groups. It subordinates to itself all economics, religious, and educational institutions and policies. It levels clases and restricts or suppresses the liberty of family and person. It leaves no room for the free play of individual wils and recognizes no utility in free inquiry.
Second, it commands and rests upon mass-support. It is no affair of an aristocratic class or a military caste. Is is franky for and by the half-educated and half-propertied lower middle class and upper proletariat.
99 Third, totalitarian dictatorship is maintained, and its overthrow rendered unusually difficult, by novel and marvellously effective agencies of popular education and propaganda….Once in power, the dictator inmediately decrees a monopoly and extensión of state schools…Everyone learns to read, of course; that is a favorite boast of contemporary dictators…….
100 Futhermore, totalitarian dictatorship has evolved a new pattern of methods and techniques. Behind a mask of plebiscites, popular elections, and occasional assembling of a so-called parliament- which listens and applauds but doesn’t really parley- the government actually functions through and with a single political party which comprises a minority, usually a small minority, of the nation, but which is more or less hand-picked, severely disciplined, and equipped with a monopoly of the means of influencing public opinión and enforcing the will of the dictator.
101 Still another novelty of totalitarianism is its exalting of might and forcé, not only as means to an end- there is precedent aplenty in Western history for that- but and end in itselt.
The novelty of totalitarianism in the History of Western civilitation.
Carton J. H. Hayes
Proceedings of the American Philosophical, vol 82, n 1, february, 1940.